1.1 describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores. Skin is the largest organ of the body, covering and protecting the entire surface of the body. The skin is primarily composed of three layers. The skin, which appears to be so thin, is still itself divided into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer or hypodermis. Each layer has it own function and own importance in maintaining the integrity of skin and thereby the whole body structure. Pressure sores or decubitus ulcers are the result of a constant deficiency of blood to the tissues over a bony area such as a heel which may have been in contact with a bed or a splint over an extended period of time. The surface of the skin can ulcerate which may become infected. Eventually subcutaneous and deeper tisssues are damaged. Besides the heel, other areas commonly involved are the skin over the buttocks, sacrum, ankles hips and other bony sites of the body. 1.2 identify pressure sites of the body.
there are many pressure sites of the body that are at risk of getting pressure sores the most common places are the bony places. for example if you are layed in bed the most common places of getting pressure sores are the heels, , elbows and tailbone this is because these are the places that stick into the bed more. if you are in a wheelchair the most common places to get pressure sores are the shoulder blades, back of the kness, feet and tail bone this is because you are sat still in a wheelchair. 1.3 identify factors which might put an individual at risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores. Factors which might put an individual at risk of pressure sores
• Pressure and shear
• Impaired or restricted mobility / activity
• Sensory impairment
• Reduced level of consciousness
• Poor nutrition and hydration
• Extremes of age
• Poor posture or inadequate support
• Previous pressure damage
• Acute, chronic and terminal illness
1.4 describe how incorrect handling and moving techniques can damage the skin. incorrect handling and moving techniques can damage the skin if you move someone incorrectly this can be done by the service user catching their skin on sharp, rough surfaces so you must be careful on objects around them. if you grip a service user in a wrong position when trying to move them then this can cause skin damage as the elderly have very delicate skin that can break easily. 1.5 identify the range of interventions that can reduce the risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores.
There are many ways of reducing the risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores some of these are: good care and support, following procedures, promoting continence, keeping skin clean and dry, using a appropriate mattress, changing positions frequently and accurate record keeping. 1.6 describe changes to an individuals skin condition that can be reported. The changes in an individual’s skin conditions what should be reported are: red patches of skin that don’t go away, blisters, damage to the skin, patches of hot skin, swelling, patches of hard skin, patches of cool skin. Redness of an area, dry skin, sore skin, broken skin, and marked areas, all need to be reported as these are signs that the skin is breaking down. 2.1 identify legislation and national guidelines affecting pressure area care. some legislations and national guidelines affecting pressure area care are: care standards act 2000
human rights act 1998
CQC Essential Standards of quality and safety 2010
2.2 describe agreed ways of working relating to pressure area care.
2.2 describe agreed ways of working relating to pressure area care. 2.3 describe why team working is important in relation to providing pressure area care.