Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts: Grunig, Quiz 1 Match the letter of the answers on the right to the questions on the left. Each answer can be used more than once.
A Self-Administered Survey
B Telephone Interview
C Independent variable
D Moderating variable
E Intervening variable
F Dependent variable
G Exploratory study
H Content validity
I Criterion-related validity
J Critical Path Method
K Ex Post Facto Evaluation
L Cross-sectional study
M Internal Consistency
P Longitudinal Study
Q Construct validity
1 What type of validity is being assessed in the following example? A consultant needs to examine how accurately an agility test given to college football players predicts their success in the NFL draft. The consultant analyzes the correlation between a player’s agility test completion time and the round of the draft in which the player is selected.
2 What type of reliability is being assessed in the following example? A testing company administers an IQ test to a large classroom of middle school students. Each student’s IQ is recorded. The testing company returns a few weeks later and gives the IQ test to the same group of students. The company calculates the similarity between both sets of test scores.
3 What type of reliability is being assessed in the following example? A study will examine the effects of a fever reducing drug in Belgium and the United States. A thermometer that measures temperature with the Fahrenheit scale will be used in the US part of the study and a different thermometer that measures temperature with the Celsius scale will be used in the Belgian part of the study. The research team wants to make sure that error isn’t introduced because they are using different thermometers. Before the study, nurses simultaneously take the temperature of 102 patients with the Celsius thermometer and the Fahrenheit thermometer. A scale conversion is calculated and the measurements from each thermometer are examined to see how closely correlated they are.
Select the best answer and enter it in the blank.
What color is the sky?
A researcher has designed a study to test the effects of different types of individual psycho-therapy on people’s levels of anxiety. She has randomly placed people into one of three groups: a behavioral treatment group, a psycho-dynamic treatment group, or a no-treatment control group. She then measures people’s level of anxiety after the treatment. Which of the following is a true statement?
A) The treatment group is the dependent variable; anxiety is the independent variable. B) Anxiety is the dependent variable; behavioral treatment is the independent variable. C) Behavioral treatment is the dependent variable; anxiety is the independent variable. D) Anxiety is the dependent variable; the treatment group is the independent variable.
Two studies are conducted to compare the experiences of seniors living in high-rise public housing to those of seniors living in townhouses with subsidized rent. The first study interviews 40 seniors who have been in each government program for at least 1 year, while the second randomly assigns 40 seniors to each program and interviews them after 1 year. Which of the following is a true statement?
A) Both studies are considered observational studies because of the time period involved. B) The first study is an observational study, while the second study is an experiment. C) The first study is an experiment, while the second is an observational study. D) Both studies are observational studies because there are no control groups. E) Both studies are experiments.
Which of the following is a true statement about an experiment, but not a true statement about an observational study?
A) The cost of conducting it is prohibitive.
B) Regression analysis is needed to properly analyze the data after it is gathered.
C) A cause-and-effect relationship can be easily ascertained.
D) Participants should be informed that they are part of a study. E) Interim variables are more difficult to control.