1.1 Background to the Study
“Youths are the pillars for nation development”. This is the proverb that nearly all of the countries in the world use in all fields of the country, in an attempt to boost development in those scopes given to the youths as the phase of life that full of physical and intellectual energy. It is released by UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) that half of the world population is under 25, and the majority (almost 85%) of the world’s youth live in developing countries, with approximately 60 percent in Asia alone. It can be said that youths are the driving factors that can make positive transition in education, society, politics, and economic development if youths are fully harnessed their creativity and energy. To increase the quality and quantity of opportunities available to young people for full, effective and constructive participation in society development, on 12 August, the first International Youth Day was celebrated. The theme of International Youth Day in 2012 was “Building a Better World: Partnering with Youth”. As demonstrated by Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin UNFPA, Executive Director “When young people can exercise their rights to health, education and decent working conditions, they can improve the capacities of their nations to escape poverty.”
Further, youths are the inheritors of the world; they are the future leaders, the peace navigators, problem-solvers as well as the innovator for the world. Irina Bokova UNESCO Director-General illustrated her view that “Young people are a wellspring of ideas for innovation. They are today’s thinkers, problem-solvers and catalysts for peace.” Look at Cambodia. As a result of disastrous civil war, Cambodia, a country located in Asia, has the youngest population in the region (around 14 million). A figure provided by 2008 census discloses that youths account for 33 percent of the total population. In this Cambodia’s social, cultural, and economical context, “Youth” is defined as a person both male and female whose age is in between 15 to 30 years old both single and married. In National Policy on Cambodian Youth Development, Cambodia government considers youths as the core and necessary resources for the development of national economics, society, environment, culture, and peace keeper for both current and future Cambodia.
In Cambodia, youths are expected to take major contribution for social, political, and economic development. Youths are anticipated to agents to scrap out social problems such as drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, HIV/AIDS and change Cambodia conservative concept to contemporary one; youths are hopes to strengthen the democratic and eliminate corruption; youths are expected to be the momentous labor forces which bring Cambodia’s economy to a prosperous stage. However, in contemporary Cambodia, youths seem to forget about their roles and their involvements in these fields due to some challenges emerging. More seriously, youths sometimes get themselves trapped in those issues that are basically expected them to solve. This paper tempts to explore what the roles that youths ought to do as a citizen of Cambodia for their nation advancement, to what level do they participate, and what difficulties that make them incapable for this involvement. Finally, we would find out who should responsible for this inactive action, and provide some solutions and recommendations for this issue.
1.2 Problem Statement
Youth is the most important foundation of the country. The way youth behave and the perceptions they stick on impact society. However, by observing the youth in Cambodia, a lot of youth fail to perform their roles. Some are even not sure what they can distribute their responsibilities in their society. To work out with this issue, there is only education that can sharpen the standard behave and perception to our youth. Education helps youth to have a brighter idea of how to be productive seeds. We need those young people with high quality to lead the nation in the next generation. Therefore, it is a challenge that we need to influence the young adult to be good.
1.3 Rational of the Study
* The significance and the result of this study is expected to understand clearly about the problems happening to youth’s behavior. * After an obvious study, we could seek for any possible solutions to take some actions starting by our team in an attempt to change something.
* To know about the roles of us as young people in developing our society, politics, and economics. * To learn about the real case in Cambodia of why youth here cannot maintain these roles. * To study about the causes and effect about the youth’s behaviors toward their society, politics, and economics. * To seek for any possible solutions that could be improved
1.5 Research Questions
1 What are the roles of youth in social, political, and economic development? 2 What are challenges that youths are facing in term of participating in social development? 3 What are the causes that affect the Cambodian youth’s behaviors (good or bad)? 4 What are the effects followed by the Cambodian youth’s behaviors? 5 What are the solutions that can effectively work to improve the thoughts and actions of the Cambodian youth? 6 Who are those who will be responsible to implement and accomplish the solutions?
2.1 Definition of Youth
“Youth” is best understood as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to adulthood’s independence and awareness of our interdependence as members of a community. Youth is a more fluid category than a fixed age-group. At the UN General Assembly in 1985, “youths” were defined as people being in the age span stretching from 15 to 24. This statement however took into consideration every member states’ right to create their own definition of “youth”. In an international perspective, there are great variations when it comes to the definition; in Israel you should be under 18 to be considered a youth, whereas you can be up to 40 in Malaysia, or 45 in Nepal. When thinking about youth in a Cambodian context, it is easy to come to the conclusion that the concept might not be very relevant. With the demographic structure being the way it is, the vast majority of the Cambodian population can be considered young.
However, there are reasons to acknowledge youth as a specific group in Cambodia. There are features that distinguish the young generation and, most important, there are young people in Cambodia that defines themselves as youths, that start up youth organisations and work with and for other youths. There is no legal definition of the dividing lines between childhood, youth and adulthood in Cambodia. Some of the legal standards however do draw a line between children and adults in certain aspects. Voting is allowed at the age of 18 and marriage at 18 for women and 20 for men. Different youth organizations and other groups in Cambodia define youths differently, based on the age of their active members or perhaps on their target groups.
However, the Youth Department of Cambodia, one of the departments under Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and the one department responsible for youth policies, defines youth as people between 14 and 30 years of age. In the social, Cultural and Political context in Cambodia “Youth” is defined as men and women who have Khmer nationality from 15 to 30 years old single or married. According to website Wikipedia “Youth” is generally the time of life between childhood and adulthood (maturity). Definitions of the specific age range that constitutes youth vary. An individual’s actual maturity may not correspond to their chronological age, as immature individuals can exist at all ages. Youth is also defined as “the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit, etc., characteristic of one who is young”. Youth is a term used for people of both sexes, male and female, of a young age.
2.2 Demographic Profile of Youth
Cambodia’s youth (aged 15-24 years) comprised 26 per cent of the total population in 2004, while 51 percent were male. Eight-in-10 (83 per cent) reside in rural areas, with the densest concentrations in the Plains and Tonle Sap regions, at 43 per cent and 28 per cent, respectively. Ethnically, 96.2 per cent of youth are Khmer, 2.2 per cent are Cham; and the remainder is indigenous groups, as well as Chinese, Vietnamese, and Lao. Most (74.2 per cent) belong to households with at least five members; and 35 per cent live below the poverty line (CSES 2004, MoP 2006). Interestingly, higher proportions (82.1 per cent) of the 15-17 age groups are in large households compared to the 18-24 cohorts (70.3 per cent). More of the young women than men aged 15-17 and 18-24 are either married, living together with a partner, divorced or have been widowed.
With regarding to education, 15-17 year olds are more likely than their older counterparts to have received primary level schooling. By gender, more young women than young men have reached primary levels of schooling, but young men are more likely to have had a secondary education. More than 8-in-10 (83.4 percent) of 15-24 year olds are literate. Literacy rates are 87.9 per cent and 78.9 per cent for males and females, respectively. Younger adolescents are more likely to be literate than their older counterparts.
Cambodia’s 15-24 year-olds comprise about 32.4 per cent of the country’s labour force, equally divided between the younger (15-19) and older (20-24) age groups, reflecting the high birth rates of the 1980s and 90s. In 2004, more than two-thirds (69.8 per cent) of youth were in agriculture; a decline from 83.5 per cent in 1999. For male and female youth (15-19 years old) labor force participation rates are comparable, but this changes with apparently fewer females economically active as they reach the ages of 20-24 years. Due in part to their low level of educational attainment, unemployment is high among Cambodia’s youth. Unemployment is highest in the capital, Phnom Penh, at 20.1 per cent for those aged 15-24; this could be due to youth migration because of a lack of employment opportunities in rural areas and poor returns from agricultural production.
2.3 Youth and Education
“If your plan is for one year plant rice. If your plan is for ten years plant trees. If your plan is for one hundred years educate children. ”― Confucius
Education is generally viewed as a unique mean for improving youth capacity toward the better prospects for enhancing the youths’ lives. It basically serves as an agent that actively eradicates the illiteracy and poverty and drives the economy of a nation to meet a development stage. It is evidenced that education is vital to economic growth and poverty reduction. Education is generally viewed as one of the most powerful weapons against poverty and vulnerability (Anand and Sen 1994; Sen 1999).
In Cambodia, because of low economics standard for most of Cambodia citizens and to promote the higher rate of enrolment in school, the government set the policy that the public education service is free for all Cambodia citizens for the basic 12 years of education regardless of sex, color, race, or culture. In addition, Cambodia government tries its effort to encourage the young people to go school at least for nine years. The government also expresses this commitment in the constitution in chapter VI on the Education, the Culture and the social affairs article 68 that: “The State shall ensure for all citizens free primary and secondary education at public schools. Citizens shall receive schooling for at least nine years.
The State shall help propagate and promote the Pali schools and the Buddhist education.” As a result, since 1979, Cambodia’s education has been improved substantially. It is reported that enrolment rate has increased significantly in rural and urban areas, including Phnom Penh, during the last decade, resulting in considerably higher literacy rates among young people across gender and socio-economic groups, particularly at the primary level. Here are the figures about the enrollment rate in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary school.
In addition to the difference of enrollment rate, the disparity of literacy rate among gender and attendance of young people in school are also prevalent. Some poor, especially female, youths still miss out and are illiterate, mostly in rural and remote areas. CSES 2004 indicates that Cambodia has high illiteracy rates among young people aged 15-24.
Although there has been a considerable increase in enrollment of young people, many problems still emerge in the field of education such as early school-leaving, far distance of school, the feeling of insecure for sending young girl to school or stereotype, and little accessibility for academic education. As the matter of fact, the government of Cambodia seems to have a great improvement in encourage young people attend schools; that is the government has enhanced the quantity of education. However, the quality of education is still low compared with other countries in the region. This poses a massive barrier for youth to fully participate in Cambodia development. It is true to say that the quality of education currently provided falls short of acceptable standards, particularly in rural areas such as Ratanakiri or Mondulkiri. In short, youth in the contemporary Cambodia definitely can get assess equally to education but the unacceptable one that give them a major problem to get affective involvement in economic development.
2.4 Youth and Their Roles in Society
As illustrated above, youths who are the people in between 15-30 comprise of 33% of all population in Cambodia. It is the fact that one developed country is the one that has an active participation of youth. In Cambodia, generally, youths are entitled to some roles for social development. First of all, preservation of Khmer culture and tradition is regarded as the primary role of youth in Cambodia. Many social problems are sprung from misconducting and lack of knowledge of their own culture and tradition. In this respect, youths are easily attract to other foreign culture which unfavorable or impractical in Cambodia context. When there is a flow of other culture into the country, there would be disorders and many social issues such as gambling, violence, drug and alcohol abuses, and illegal actions. These are the main factors causing youths get overjoyed and forget about their own beautiful tradition and culture.
Secondly, youths have a role to develop their country. This is the primary role all Cambodia citizen especially youths who are the prospective leaders in the country. Adults’ contribution for nation development is not enough. Youths carry a major responsibility to enhance social development in variety of activities including participating in charity events, working voluntary in the community, creating small project that response to the local demand, and active involvement in expressing idea or opinion for innovation. In addition, striving for knowledge and appropriate job is another responsibility for youths to maintain. The majority of youths who are under 30 years old are working and studying simultaneously. The age of youth is the most proper period in life when people possess mental and intellectual energy to pursue knowledge. It cannot be denied that one society would stand on the edge of disastrous fall if the society has lack of influential human resources. High quality of education that a young possesses will enable him to get well job that is a main contribution for the growth of the nation.
Therefore, youth should take this role into account and do their best to perform this role effectively. Civic engagement is another responsibility that youths should take into account. It is a good idea that youths should spend more time to get voluntarily engaged in non-profit organizations or associations to gain more awareness about the society, politics, or economics rather spending time on unwholesome actions during their free time. Regard to this respect, youths in Cambodia tend to have a good performance according to a research supported by UNDP. The research showed a large majority of Cambodian youth (68%) report that they have volunteered.
Volunteering was higher among males (72%) than females (64%). The most volunteering occurred in Plains (79%) and the least in Tonle Sap (49%). There were no urban/rural differences. Volunteering did increase with educational level but not across income. The most common forms of volunteering65 were in community assistance (87%) and community service through schools (51%). Mass media projects were the third most common form of volunteering (23%). Far fewer youth reported being involved in community groups (21%) or a youth association (14%). Very few youth reported volunteering related to policy-making or politics. In fact, participation in political (3%), trade, business, professional (5%) or religious (8%) organizations was reported by very few youth.
2.5 Youth and Their Challenges in Social, Politics, and Economics Development 2.5.1 Social Challenges
In this last decade, it is noted that an increasing number of youths take more active actions in participating the developing activities in the community they live in as well as strengthening their capacity to serve the nation betterment. As evidence discloses that, there are around 60 organizations and associations run by youth such as Khmer Democratic Association, Khmer Students and Intellectuals Association, Khmer Student Association, Khmer Youth Committee for Future so on. The vast majority of the Cambodian youth initiated organizations are founded by university students. Many of them work with democracy and human rights issues, education and training and awareness rising on various issues.
Despite this more active involvement, it is observed that youths in contemporary Cambodia face several challenges that restraint them to make contribution for their society. That barrier can be originated from two main factors – inside factors and outside factors.
The first inside barriers is that most of youths in Cambodia have low self-confidence. Self-confidence is the stage of being sure about yourself that you have the capability to do something well and deal with situations successfully. When youths bear in mind that “I am worthless” or “I cannot do that action”, it restricts youth to use their potential knowledge or creativity fully. This thinking always pushes them back from taking actions which they, in their opinion, are beneficial to the society.
One of the interviewee in the research, Kim Leng who studies Public Administration if RULE stated their opinion that: “I think that I have lack of capacity to take part in Student Association at RULE that the reason that I do not join the association.” The stage of being low self-confidence is the possible contribution a sense of hopelessness that is likely to lower their effectiveness opinion. Furthermore, confusion and ambiguity concerning moral issues is also considered as the barrier for youths. The lack of knowledge moral issues usually cause youths to misinterpret what is right and wrong. By seeing the right actions as the wrong actions and the wrong actions as the right actions, youths can easily fall into committing unwholesome actions to the society they live in such violence, crime, drug, alcohol abuses and sexuality instead of thinking of the way to develop their society.
The outside impact is the negative impact of the electronic media has great influence on youths’ behaviours in contemporary Cambodia. Youths are distracted by modern gadgets and advanced technology that drastically inflow into Cambodia society as a result of rapid globalization. Due to the presence of these new things plus their curiosities, most of youths, especially the ones whose reside in urban area, are overjoyed by those widgets and media. As a result, they forget about their roles or responsibility to the society they live in and pay no attention on the issues happening in the community. 2.5.2 Political Challenges
It is entitled by the supreme low of that Cambodia that Youths who are more than 18 can express their political power through voting. In Cambodia’s constitution chapter III article 34 states that:
“Khmer citizens of both sexes shall enjoy the right to vote and to stand as candidates for the election. Khmer citizens of both sexes, at least eighteen years old, have the right to vote. Khmer citizens of both sexes, at least twenty-five years old, have the right to stand as candidates for the elections of the members of the National Assembly. Khmer citizens of both sexes, at least forty years old, have the right to stand as candidates for the elections of the members of the Senate.
Provisions restricting the right to vote and the right to stand as candidates for the elections shall be determined by the Electoral Law.” From this article, youths can play important roles in deciding who will be the prospective leader. However, in the statement “Khmer citizens of both sexes, at least twenty-five years old, have the right to stand as candidates for the elections of the members of the National Assembly” reflect that youths are provided little chance to get involved with politics or policy-planning for their country.
In addition, germane to the respect of politics, it seems that Cambodia citizens have insufficient knowledge about politics. It is found that the awareness and knowledge of the two concepts – Human Rights and Democracy – among Cambodia people is still limited. One research indicated that: “While nearly three-quarters of the survey respondents said they had heard of ‘democracy’, nearly three-quarters of them could not state (‘don’t know’) what democracy means to them. Among those who did say what democracy means to them, neither elections nor voting were mentioned.” Insufficiency of awareness germane to politics put a prominent block for youths to engage in politics.
Besides, the lack of interest about the politics also put youths and politics separated. The reason behind is that they stick on the concept “political involvement can pose danger toward them.” Also most of parents place restriction on their young children to participate in politics given that they care about children safety.
For this, it can say that “Politics is a danger place to step in” is prevalent opinion stuck in Cambodia young generations’ mind. As a result, In Cambodia, the number of youth candidates and youths elected at national and commune level nationwide in previous elections is still very low. No parliamentarian is under 30 years of age; there are only 163 youth commune councilors, equal to 1.43% of the 11,353 elected councilors nationwide. This figure is derived from the official results of the 2007 commune council elections. In general, political parties in Cambodia have not paid attention to encouraging youths to become elected representatives.
2.5.3 Economics Challenges
Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth, averaging 8.2 per cent per annum. Much of the growth has been concentrated in a few sectors: garment manufacturing, construction, transport and tourism and restaurants. Low education quality is seen as the prime root for youths to effectively enhance economics growth. It is certain that education will be a key to open door to decent employment.
3.1 Data Collection
The data collection basically, we will use the primary data plus the secondary data to seek for the most qualified and timely data in order to support our topic as well as to study it in as detail as we could.
3.1.1 Primary Data
Since we are lack of experience in doing the research, we only work on the survey papers. We do the survey on 40 people. Those people will be mostly in the between the youth age because we want to know more their knowledge of their roles in the society they are living in.
The survey will expect to hand to those youths who are from different provinces.
3.1.2 Secondary Data
The Secondary data that collected are from the internet with both the PDF files and the webpages. Also, there are some useful information about the youth study from Cambodia government as well as the UN and other interest group who also do the research on the similar topic. 3.2 Research Site
This research studies on the general behavior of youths in Cambodia, so we don’t have a specific location to site but Cambodia as a whole.
3.3 Research Method and Sample Design
With the primary data that we use may not effective enough, but we try hard to get the information from any interested group and make the observation of the youth behavior and take note. To get better information, three of us observation the behavior of youth that we meet and see every day, take note and come to discuss together. Therefore, we can come with more ideas and the straight purpose of the study and problems of the study.
3.4 Data Analysis
With the survey and direct observation, we suppose to analysis the data by making chart and describe the information. Also, we report all the written answers from our survey people by choosing the good and reasonable those.
3.5 Limitation of the Study
This study is only the study of the youth behavior and their engagement in three main field which are social, politics, and economics. The information of the people who not between the youth age (15-30 years old according to the Cambodian Minister report) will not be used.
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
We did the survey with the Total = 40
Male = 24
Female = 16
4.1 Background of Survey People
Throughout the 40 people surveys, they are mostly the youth who are from 15-30. Their occupation is currently students, and only 6% percent of them (2 people) are employer between these ages. They are from various geographies including Kandal province, Kompong Cham province, Preh Vihear province, and mostly Phnom Penh.
4.2 Own Perception over Themselves in their Society
98% of the surveys believe that the education system in Cambodia is weak. The reason they provided are: * Students don’t obey the discipline, teacher just work for money to support their family and stop caring much, there are a lot of cheats in exam (students copy each other), parents threaten teachers for being strict too their spoiled children. * Cambodia just recovers from the war and corruption, drainage, especially many of those educated died during the war. * In the state of developing moderation.
* There are many schools and students, but the quality doesn’t meet the standard. * Some university students in Cambodia still cheat during exam. * Corruption, poor management, weak regulation, and cheating. * Only rich or upper class can get higher education; people who live in rural area still have limited chance. * Cambodia is facing unemployment after graduation because of lack of skill and quality. * There are not many intellectual people.
* Most of students prefer to have fun rather than reading books or doing research for further knowledge.
Most people aware and acceptable that they are important to the society, but we can see the amount of social participation, doing the voluntary work, or any other activities are involved by the youth only 50% based on the data from the 40 youths.
4.3.1 What Your Roles are in Social Development?
* We, as youth, can help our country by participating in all society benefited activities such as city sanitation, HIV/ Aids prevention, Drug, obey traffic law, Orphanage support, give advises to the younger, and study hard… * Have an important role in developing country in order to help the society * To be a knowledgeable person, that this is the only best way to develop a society * I can improve in society by adopting a good character through being nice and good to people and do as a good role model to others to imitate * My role is the contribution in enhancing society, social activities…. * Keep waste in waste container
4.3.2 What You Hope to Accomplish in Your Society?
* I hope I can serve society through my skills and the ability * I hope to strengthen our education system become more dynamic * No more corruption, more chances for job
* I hope where I am living in is a place that is safe to live, has many jobs to work, nice recreation sites to enjoy… * Doing a good job in government and private sector
* Tries study hard to be a good person for develop society
* Develop society
* I hope to be a person who is helpful for my society, help to develop my society
* Run organization to help poor people
4.3 Perception over other youth in Cambodia as a Whole
Generally, within the 100%, 68% judge the youth performance in Cambodia in a bad and unacceptable way. Moreover, they, the Cambodian themselves, 63% said that the country is insecure, and there even 11% wish to leave the country. On the other hand, there are 26% that feel Cambodia is a nice place to live in.
4.3.1 Do Youths are interested in Political Issue in Cambodia? No, because:
* Most of them don’t care about political issues because their parents always tell them not to care, * They were afraid of their own safety;
* They are getting crazy about foreign cultures and modern materials; * They find it difficult and limit to understand about political system; * They think only personal benefit, to find happiness for yourself and family * There are not many youths involve in politics in Cambodia * They don’t think that they cannot involve in political system due to the blood cable of those who are already in the position Yes, because:
* It involves in education system
* Sometimes I saw some young people read newspaper and listen to our prime minister speech
4.3.2 Would You Like to Get Involved in Politics?
* there are many things needed to be changed in this society to be better for me, my family, and my compatriot to be able to live in a good government society, healthy place to live, and no corruption No, because:
* Politics is complicated, and some youth are not interested in politics. Also, they are afraid that politics can make them dangerous. 4.3.3 Things Youth should Take Part to Improve the Political Condition * Inspiration nationalism and recognize the acts and good feedback from partners Special needs to participate in elections * To improve the political condition is to change to root cause of the problem, and I found that it was because of the leaders and its management styles, so remove them and restructure will be needed and attracting youth to politics is another important thing because they are the next person who will come to stage to lead. * Education, Media, Great political system, and Human resources * To stop corruption
* Provide equal right to all citizens
* We should involve with political as much as we can
* Law, Economic, social, politic
* Enhancing education, strong law, and provide equal opportunity for all. 4.3.4 Economic Condition in Cambodia
The economic condition is limited Cambodia according to the answer from the people we survey with the following reasons provided: * People who has power cam hold the economic like they don’t pay full taxes for government * A bit cool just read more effort and continue! But also need transparency in the government report to public… * Is seems slowly increase
* Not very develop
4.4 Challenges That Block Youth from Participating
* Have a strong and unchanged mind on favorism which never create the accessible opportunities equally to everyone * Don’t have time for volunteer work because some have to work to support the family, too * No one participates with no time, no money since they don’t see the incentives to do * Landform and whether pause few of them from fully participate with any society activities 4.5.4 Politics
* No safety and security when expressing own opinion related to politics * Don’t understand about politics
* Lake of knowledge in political subject, no authority
* Many people, when talk about the economic development, think that only running business will help the country to be developed faster. However, this is not a right view they should hold in mind. * Most of all commodities in USD Knowledge is needed
* Don’t have a lot of accesses with the free trade globally * The gap is very big between the rich and the poor
* Lack of invention and creativity in producing new products * Lack of intelligent people to study about the people’s behavior in Cambodia * There is no financial support for any new discovery products * The
knowledge about the economics are still limited in Cambodia
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion and Solution
In conclusion, youth as the next generation of the society is very important. Youth’s behaviors tell how the future of the Cambodia is going to be like. According to Dr. Ban Ki-moon United Nations, Secretary-General, “youth should be given a chance to take an active part in the decision-making of local, national and – global levels” As we can see from the research we did that youth performance is very unacceptable nowadays. Not only this research shows, but there are few researches already reported about the poor behavior of the youth in Cambodia. There are many factors that causing these problems such as the influencing from other countries in the materialism, the corruption in Cambodia, and the bad role model from the elders. However, the biggest problem starts from the education as the foundation.
No matter how worse the pollution the country is, but with the right and strong perceptions to be held in mind by those young people, the country will be better in the next generation. Unfortunately, it is a disappointing as we’ve known about our education system. To expect a good future for our Cambodia might take a lot of time because throughout this generation, we hardly find those numbers of youth who know well about their roles in generating the fruitful distribution to the society, politics and economics sector. Based on the above survey, most youth have very little understanding about the politics and economics and also find no time to participate in any social activities. According to the statistic, most percent of those whom we survey describe Cambodia as an insecure country and even some among them want to live in other countries. This is a disaster and the loss of human resource in the country.
Therefore, as a solution, first education must be strengthening to ensure the qualification of each student. Second, all the sector including politics and economics should be free and inconvenient in getting involved with them. The country wants the youth to have a great experience and knowledge in taking part in the country development. Third, it’s important for the older people to be a good role model no matter those people used to be bad but don’t let those behavior pass down to the young people. History will be ignore if the present goes well. Fourth, the government should be independent in making decision and put the benefits of the country first, not for the sake of each individual’s sake and under the control of the authority. 5.2 Recommendation
“Thombeang Snong Russey” is one of the Khmer saying which means that the bamboo shoot grows up to the bamboo. This saying implies that young people are the prospective people who will continue older people’s position in developing the country. Hence, in order that youths can become well-growth bamboo shoot, youths ought to strife for knowledge, skills and social awareness. Simultaneously, youths should be well treated and paid more attention by the community as well as the government. Concerning this aspect, Cambodia government is taking more actions in motivating youths’ participation by creating youth development policies and more approachable chances for youths.
For example, on 24th June 2011, the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport wrote “National Policy on Cambodia Youth Development” The aim of this policy is to develop youth to be equipped with full characteristics including physical, intellectual, mentality, morality, value, and skill. Despite this afford, many Cambodia people agree that the education quality in Cambodia is still unacceptable compared with neighboring countries. Consequently, government must pay great attention in making constructive adjustments in education system to ensure that youths’ potential entirely harnessed.
* http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-humansciences/themes/youth/youthdefinition/ * https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:zhiFLcbS2pkJ:citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi%3D10.1.1.202.4166%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf+definition+of+youth+in+Cambodia&hl=en&gl=kh&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShyXmvhuq7bjWKLLVd0eMv7qY1HGJ5z350wAEUGOzWte4QpprU4D0Rld8uGX7wWSAGy86zFhAFfQZmeL5a5a_IH-hszV8q6GwGAaWg8NpcNeUNL-6FM9YoXCnBkco_tvB6B8VrE&sig=AHIEtbQJ7_hoG0e6-UdMTRjDkPzwX_jE7A * National Institute of Statistics, available at http://www.nis.gov.kh * Health Cambodia magazine No 40 May 2009, “Youth and Society”, available at: http://www.healthcambodia.com/p10104/ * UNESCO (2009). “Cambodia-UNESCO: Country Programming Document 2009-2010.” * Neak Klom Meul Analytical Article, Participation of Youth in Elections, COMFEREL. pdf. * United Nations Development Programme in Cambodia, “Youth Civic Participation in Cambodia: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Media”, 2010. * National Policy on Cambodia Youth Development pdf.
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