The term ‘socio-political’ signifies the combination of social and political factors. These are issues that regulated by political policy that affect whole societies. The first known use of the term “socio-political” was in 1884. Political sociology was traditionally concerned with how social trends, dynamics, and structures of domination affect formal political processes, as well as exploring how various social forces work together to change political policies. SOCIAL FACTORS
Following are some social factors that affect the political processes. * Poverty
Poverty is the deprivation of food, shelter, money and clothing that occurs when people cannot satisfy their basic needs. Poverty can be understood simply as a lack of money, or more broadly in terms of barriers to everyday life. * Communicable disease control
To promote and support the prevention and control of communicable diseases the focus is on diseases:
* With infectious causes;
* With human to human transmission of disease;
* Which are community acquired;
* Which are reportable under The Public Health Act.
This responsibility is carried out in collaboration with others involved with the identification and management of communicable diseases. * Radioactive waste disposal
Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material. Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. * Food safety
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. In theory food poisoning is 100% preventable. The five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHO are: * Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests. * Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods. * Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens. * Store food at the proper temperature.
* Do use safe water and cooked materials.
Biotechnology (sometimes shortened to “biotech”) is generally accepted as the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” (UN Convention on Biological Diversity). For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine. The term itself is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky. In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diganostic tests. * Child Welfare
Child Welfare connects child welfare and related professionals to comprehensive information and resources to help protect children and strengthen families. * Terrorism
Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, often violent, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no legally binding, criminal law definition. Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for a religious, political or, ideological goal; and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians). Some definitions now include acts of unlawful violence and war. The use of similar tactics by criminal organizations for protection rackets or to enforce a code of silence is usually not labeled terrorism though these same actions may be labeled terrorism when done by a politically motivated group. Perhaps, it is less oppressive in itself than through the effects of the precautions taken to protect its likely victims. * Sexual violence
Sexual violence occurs throughout the world, although in most countries there has been little research conducted on the problem. Due to the private nature of sexual violence, estimating the extent of the problem is difficult. Research suggests that nearly one in four women may experience sexual violence by an intimate partner, and up to one-third of adolescent girls report their first sexual experience as being forced. * Social inequality
Social inequality refers to a situation in which individual groups in a society do not have equal social status, social class, and social circle. Areas of social inequality include voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, the extent of property rights and access to education, health care, quality housing, traveling, transportation, vacationing and other social goods and services. Apart from that it can also be seen in the quality of family and neighbourhood life, occupation, job satisfaction, and access to credit. If these economic divisions harden, they can lead to social divisions. * Sectarianism
Sectarianism, according to one definition, is bigotry, discrimination or hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions within a group, such as between different denominations of a religion, class, regional or factions of a political movement. The ideological underpinnings of attitudes and behaviours labelled as sectarian are extraordinarily varied. Members of a religious or political group may believe that their own salvation, or the success of their particular objectives, requires aggressively seeking converts from other groups; adherents of a given faction may believe that for the achievement of their own political or religious project their internal opponents must be converted or purged * Child labour
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations. * Injustice
Injustice refers to either the absence, or the opposite, of justice. The term may be applied either in reference to a particular event or act, or to a larger status quo. The term generally refers to misuse, abuse, neglect, or malfeasance that is uncorrected or else sanctioned by a legal system. Misuse and abuse with regard to a particular case or context may represents a systemic failure to serve the cause of justice (cf. legal vacuum). Injustice means “gross unfairness.” Injustice may be classified as a different system in comparison to different countries concept of justice and injustice. It may be simply the result of the flawed human decision making that the system is supposed to protect against. According to Plato, “he doesn’t know what justice is but he knows what justice is not.”
Smuggling is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons, such as out of a building, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations. There are various motivations to smuggle. These include the participation in illegal trade, such as in the drug trade, in illegal immigration or illegal emigration, tax evasion, providing contraband to a prison inmate, or the theft of the items being smuggled. Examples of non-financial motivations include bringing banned items past a security checkpoint (such as airline security) or the removal of classified documents from a government or corporate office. * Drug abuse
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals. Substance abuse/drug abuse is not limited to mood-altering or psycho-active drugs. If an activity is performed using the objects against the rules and policies of the matter (as in steroids for performance enhancement in sports), it is also called substance abuse. Therefore, mood-altering and psychoactive substances are not the only types of drug abuse. Using illicit drugs – narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, cannabis, even glues and paints, are also considered to be classified as drug/substance abuse. Substance abuse often includes problems with impulse control and impulsive behaviour. * Food and water crisis
The food & water crises are the important social factors that have great impact on political policies & processes. The world’s financial experts have placed Pakistan on a list of 36 countries that face a serious food crisis. It has two sides; one is unavailability of edibles and second is soaring prices due to gap in demand and supply of edibles. We are facing the crisis of water nowadays. The increase in demand due to population growth, and infrequent rainfall, is aggravating the situation day by day . Insufficient no. of reservior is also one of the cause of water crisis. Perpetual silting of water reservoirs, lakes, canals, rivers and waterways is one of the major reasons of shrinking water storage capacity. * Population growth
Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using “per unit time” for measurement. In biology, the term population growth is likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to human populations in demography. * Poor health facilities
Healthcare in Pakistan is administered mainly in the private sector which accounts for approximately 80% of all outpatient visits. The public sector was until recently led by the Ministry of Health, however the Ministry was abolished in June 2011 and all health responsibilities (mainly planning and fund allocation) were devolved to provincial Health Departments which had until now been the main implementers of public sector health programs. Like other South Asian countries, health and sanitation infrastructure is adequate in urban areas but is generally poor in rural areas. About 19% of the population and 30% of children under age of five are malnourished. POLITICAL FACTORS
Following are some political factors that affect the social state of the country. * Political Instability
Political instability is a situation where by a country is currently going through political turmoil. It may also involve the death of people within that country and in many cases the country detoriates in terms of its economic progress. The territorial issues and border conflicts with India, the socio-economic differences within the country, the struggle for a share of power between the provinces and the early death of the founder of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah, are some of those realities which not only politicized the policy making elites and their willingness in introducing the fair democratic procedures but also encouraged the non-democratic elements in the country including the army. Even after 63 years, as a corollary, the country could not get cleaned from feudal, tribal, punchayt system and sectarian segregation. In this grim situation the public has been left untutored in the kind of vigilance usually needed to hold political leaders accountable. Pakistan failed to establish a stable democratic government due to constitutional conflict.
Due to political instability, Pakistan’s economic and social growth has been curtailed. The root cause of Pakistan political woes lies in its feudal and the winner-take-all approach to governing that has been practiced by successive civilian and military leaders. The Muslim League that brought independence to Pakistan, lacked internal democracy. Once partition and statehood had been achieved, provincial and local political parties confined Muslim League just a paper-party. There were no opposition party to counter Muslim League initially, but latter on, Muslim league itself was disappeared. Coupled with the political legacy of Muslim League, the civil and military bureaucracy, that was of much importance due to its scarce number, gained so much power that they depressed the political institution. The constitution-less 10 years-history from 1947 to 1956-was an ill exercise of the political actors, which invoked the military to interfere in the politics. Absence of a complete constitution, allowed the peoples with power to manipulate the political and constitutional institution, as they wanted. Different powerful civil and military bureaucrats played blasphemy of constitution, parliament and political parties.
Political parties in Pakistan are not working fairly. The intra-party election is no to be seen. The leaders, consequently, are autocrats. Political parties are famous in the name of leader of the parties. Personification has harmed extremely the true essence of democracy. The third pillar of the state, the judiciary has also dual strategies all over the history. Mostly the role of the judiciary has been vulnerable. It has always provided a so-called legal way to the dictators to assume the power. The constitution has been abrogated many a time with the help of the judiciary. Beside the judiciary and Army’s role in politics, the intelligence agencies have become a major actor on the national political scene. Military intelligence and Inter-Services-Intelligence (ISI) are widely believed to have had a major hand in shaping the candidates and the choices available to voters at least since General Zia’s general election of 1985. In these situation how a true democratic government would be formed to realized the dreams of the great Quaid?
In addition to all above given anti-democracy factors, the dynamic structure of the state is also not in the favour of democratic values to be flourished. For most of its history Pakistan has been divided into provinces drawn basically on ethnic lines. Political loyalties and attitude have a strong ethnic dimension to them, and the central government’s desires to manage Pakistan’s ethnic diversity can have a major impact on resource allocation foreign policy decision, and the game of politics. Another elements which has vitiated the democracy in Pakistan is violance in politics. The patience require for a democratic system is highly tacking in almost all the parties and theirs drivers. Democracy accommodate the presence of dissent party. Democracy is the product of wishes of the people and not of the desires of an elite few. But political prayer of Pakistan could not do so. Illiterate voters, family ties a among politicians and feudalism has constrained democracy in Pakistan. Democracy can be revived in Pakistan by taking following steps.
1. Reform the judiciary.
2. Creation of an independent election commission.
3. Internal party elections.
4. Strengthen the free press.
5. Division of provinces.
6. Don’t neglect provincial and local government.
7. Implementation of the constitutions.
8. Continuity of fair elections.
9. Protection of minorities and civil liberties.
The nation political parties should embrace a new spirit of co-operation and constructive opposition, moving beyond out dated confrontational and self-defeating street action and walk-outs and boycott politics to engage in vigorous political debates free of violence. * Dynastic Politics
This stranglehold of a narrow power elite on the country’s politics was highlighted by the victory of Abdul Qadir Gilani in the by-election on the seat vacated by his father Yousuf Raza Gilani. Although the former prime minister himself is barred from holding any public office for five years, his family remains all-powerful, with two of his sons now sitting in the National Assembly and a brother occupying a seat in the Punjab Assembly. Some reports suggest that another of his sons may stand for the Punjab Assembly seat vacated by Qadir Gilani. The Gilanis are one of the 102 families holding more than 50 per cent of the seats in the federal and provincial legislatures. That says a lot about the state of representative democracy in Pakistan. A sense of dynastic entitlement dominates the country’s political culture, impeding the development of institutional democracy. With few exceptions, all the political parties are in fact extensions of powerful families with hereditary leaderships. Their politics mainly revolve around managing and strengthening family interests. Elections are all about gaining control of state patronage. Clan, tribe, caste and biradari play a major role in the perpetuation of dynastic politics.
Indeed most of Pakistan’s political dynasties are rural-based with feudal origins, but over the years families from urban, religious and military backgrounds have also emerged on the political scene. A part of the post-partition industrialist and business elite, the Sharif family saw its rise in the 1980s duringGen Zia’s military rule. Deviating somewhat from the pattern, it draws its strength mainly from the support of the urban mercantile class of Punjab. However, despite coming from a completely different social origin and background the Sharifs have fallen into line, sharing a similar feudal-tribal, patrimonial and personality-based style of politics. Over the past three decades the Bhutto legacy has dominated Pakistan’s political scene. After the execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto the mantle of leadership passed to his daughter Benazir Bhutto. But her assassination in 2007 heralded the rise of a new political dynasty led by her husband Asif Ali Zardari. Besides himself being the country’s president, Zardari has two sisters and one brother-in-law who are members of the National Assembly. Furthermore, his sister Faryal Talpur is elected from the Bhutto family seat in Larkana, effectively bringing an end to the Bhutto dynasty.
Not surprisingly, the military, which has ruled Pakistan for most of its existence directly or indirectly, has also been responsible for the entrenchment of dynastic politics. In an effort to legitimise and perpetuate their rule all military rulers have also sought to co-opt powerful political families. With few exceptions, all the major political dynasties have been a part of successive military regimes to protect their own long-term political interests and receive state patronage. Some of the most powerful political families were in fact propped up by military regimes. Given its history it did not come as a surprise when the majority of the PML-N leadership switched its allegiance to the military regime soon after the overthrow of the Nawaz Sharif government in 1999. Led by Shujaat Hussain, the patriarch of one of the most powerful political dynasties, the dissident faction known as the PML-Q provided political support to Gen Musharraf’s military regime. Ironically the group is now a key partner in the present PPP-led coalition government.
In many cases members of the same clan are distributed among different political parties to protect family interests. A case in point is the Magsi family, whose influence extends into both Sindh and Balochistan. Headed by Zulfiqar Magsi, the governor of Balochistan, the family has at least 10 members in the National Assembly, the Senate and the Balochistan and Sindh assemblies. The list includes his children, brothers, sisters and wife, who is a minister in the Balochistan government. Interestingly, they have been elected on either PPP or PML-Q tickets. The Saifullahs of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are another powerful political dynasty with members distributed among different political parties. While Salim Saifullah, who recently completed his six-year term in the Senate, is a member of the Likeminded faction of the PML-Q, his younger brother Humayun Saifullah is a sitting PML-Q MNA.
His other brother, Anwar Saifullah, who was also a son-in-law of former president Ghulam Ishaq Khan, is a PPP member in the KP Assembly. Anwer Saifullah’s son, Osman Saifullah, has recently been elected to the Senate on a PPP ticket from Islamabad. One of his nephews, Jahangir Saifullah, has recently joined Imran Khan’s Pakistan Tehrik-i-Insaf. There have been only two instances in the past when established families were defeated in elections. The first was in 1970 when relatively unknown PPP candidates swept away the established political dynasties of Punjab. The sweep was described as a ‘revolution through the ballot box’. Ironically, after coming to power Zulfikar Ali Bhutto embraced all those defeated power brokers, transforming the party’s composition. A similar routing of political dynasties occurred in 2002 when the MMA, a coalition of Islamic parties, swept the polls in KP. Ordinary local mullahs defeated the all-powerful oligarchs. The circumstances of the two elections may be completely different, but in both cases this proved to be a temporary phenomenon. * Political Unawareness
There is no such political awareness in most of the people of our country. They have no information regarding to the real political policies and matters.
* Political Norms & Ethics
A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the views: who should have authority, how religious questions should be handled, and what the government’s influence on its people and economy should be. Our most of the politicians do not obey the norms & ethics of politics. This is harmful for our society. * Foreign Debt
There’re various reasons for the accumulation of this loan, among which, Bush’s policies, the federal government’s spending spree and paying for two wars on borrowed money, stand out prominently. But, despite this loan, it’s also advancing aid to various countries. One fails to understand as to how it’s managing all this? It looks as if we, in Pakistan, are also toeing the US line. Our total external debt has swelled to around $67 billion. This is over and above the huge internal debt. We’re printing currency notes to the tune of Rs1.5 to 3 billion daily. Every Pakistani man, woman and child is indebted to an amount of Rs 61,000 each. It appears that this loan will keep rising till the time the next general elections take place. One fails to understand as to where all this money has gone and how this debt is going to be repaid. The value of Pakistani rupee has fast eroded during the last four-and-a- half years, and will soon touch Rs100 to a dollar. * Discourage the rules of law from government representatives Politician, lawyers, economists and policy makers often use the term “rule of law” to characterize a certain type of legal –political regime.
The rule of law does not have a precise definition, and its meaning can vary between different nations and legal traditions. Generally, it can be understood as a legal- political regime under which the law restrains the government by promoting certain liberties and creating order and predictability regarding how a country functions. In the most basic sense, the rule of law is a system that attempts to protect the rights of citizens from arbitrary and abusive use of government power. It also serves as an important assurance of social rights and government accountability. The rule of law in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. The rule follows logically from the idea that truth and therefore law, is based upon fundamental principles which can be discovered, but which cannot he created through an act of will. But or political parties and some politicians disobey & discourage this. For Example: X-PM Yousuf Raza Gillani.
* Disloyal leaders
Leaders are not loyal with their duties. They are not paying the right of their post. They are not paying required attention to the country’s matters instead they are giving priority to their personal interests. MAIN SOCIO-POLITICAL ISSUES Following are the 3 main/current spcio-political issues: 1.Global Warming:
Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die. The greenhouse effect makes the earth appropriate for people to live on. Without it, the earth would be freezing, or on the other hand it would be burning hot. Causes of Global Warming:
Global Warming is caused by many things. The causes are split up into two groups, man-made or anthropogenic causes, and natural causes. Natural causes are causes created by nature.
* One natural cause is a release of methane gas from arctic tundra and wetlands. * Another natural cause is that the earth goes through a cycle of climate change. This climate change usually lasts about 40,000 years. Man-made causes probably do the most damage. There are many man-made causes. * Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Pollution comes in many shapes and sizes. Burning fossil fuels is one thing that causes pollution. * Another major man-made cause of Global Warming is population. * Another major cause of global warming is continuous cutting of a large number of trees across the world that is also referred as deforestation. It is projected that, 34 million acres of trees are cut and burned each ear resulting in 25% of all carbon dioxide release entering the atmosphere. Effects of Global Warming:
Global warming is affecting many parts of the world. The effects of global warming are the ecological and social changes caused by the rise in global temperatures. Its effects on animals and on agriculture are indeed frightening, and the effects on the human population are even scarier. global warming effects are real, global, measurable and severe.Global warming effects are:
* Rise in sea levels worldwide
* More killer storms
* Massive crop failures
* Widespread extinction of species
* Disappearance of coral reefs
* Spread of disease
* Choose energy efficient appliances when making new purchases.
* Don’t let heat escape from your house over a long period.
* Plant a tree.
* Reduce the number of miles you drive by walking, biking, carpooling or taking mass transit wherever possible.
* Recycle your organic waste.
2. Resource Management:
Resource management is the second major sociopolitical issue. It is a process of using resources in the most efficient way possible. Resources can be anything but as a socio political issue we can say that the management of natural and mineral resources of Pakistan. Pakistan is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of natural resources but also one of the poorest among them in their management. Prevalent political rivalry and instability, worsening law and order and corruption have catalyzed the situation to resource development impasse. There are so many ways which are used for the betterment of our country. But why these possible ways are not implemented by the government. The question is that why our government is not working properly for the management of all resources in our country because there is a very slow development in this field. Types of Resources:
1- Energy Resources
2- Mineral Resources
3- Agricultural Resources
4- Human Resources
The policy making elite of the country has not only been oblivious to the potential but also indifferent to the slow pace of efforts to harness this source for energy production and exports. The energy deficit is badly affecting the industry in country but no any serious initiative is taken for electricity production from coal. Load shedding of gas & electricity are major problems of our country now-a-days. Besides, the geography of Pakistan enriches it with the renewable energy resources. Wind and Solar energy are other unused lifelines of Pakistan. Some hydro power projects, Thar coal project, and oil exploration projects are in doldrums due to bureaucratic bottlenecks. There is no headway in solar and wind energy projects planned by Alternative Energy Development Board. The vast lands of Balochistan can be utilized for solar electricity generation. But unfortunately these resources have barely been used due to political instability, technological backwardness and lack of innovative policies. 2-Mineral Resources:
There are other partially untapped resources of rock salts, Gypsum, lime stone, iron, marble, and silica sand are mineral rsources. These resources have not been exploited due to corruption and bottlenecks in political and bureaucratic culture. 3-Agricultural Resources:
The lack of vision and policy planning in utilization of water resource is also severely affecting agriculture. The country is blessed with four seasons and variety of crops but due to lack of research the productivity remains low. The coast line provides ample opportunity to enhance this industry, but poor performance and poor presentation of our cause in WTO have put fish industry at the verge of destruction. 4-Human Resources:
The most important of the natural resources in this globalized world is human resource. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world having large share of ‘young population’ i.e. 63 percent below age of 25 years, according to United Nations Development Programme. But the failed policies have caused mounting unemployment of 15 percent. The resource which could be used to enhance the economic activity is left to no use which is adding to the increase in poverty. The lack of opportunities leading to the brain drain of talented minds has further worsened the situation. Factors and Causes Leading to Poor Resource management:
The above analysis reveals that Pakistan is not poor, but poorly managed country. The factors which have caused the poor management of natural resources include:
* political instability
* political indecision making / divergence,
* lack of vision and planning,
* flawed policies,
* bureaucratic bottlenecks and corruption,
* lack of human resource development,
* worsened law and order situation.
These factors have led not only to the poor management of natural resources but also to the poor governance of country. Preventive measures:
* Pakistani leadership must focus on exploration of natural resources and their scientific management. Properly managed natural resources can become instrumental in national income and its growth. * In order to take maximum benefits from natural resources there is the need of technical education of people involved in resource exploitation and management. The technical education ensures that there is minimum wastage of the resources. Hence, such education should be made compulsory for the people in concerned areas of activity. * On the other hand, the politicians, policy makers and all the stake holders must adopt a rational approach not to politicize natural resources. It should be prioritized as the vital national interest and dealt with as such.
The controversies on the management of water and mineral resources must be resolved pragmatically for best interest of the nation. * Last but not the least, worsened law and order situation in Pakistan, which has led to the lack of investment, must be checked. The private firms engaged in resource exploration must be protected by the state. Ensuring the security, would attract investment in the respective areas which would subsequently guarantee the inflow of capital in the national economy and the resource potential could be fully exploited. * As we know that our land is rich of natural and mineral resources and if we use all the resources in a possible and beneficial way we can control on these issues. 3. Education:
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply through autodidacticism. Pakistan education problems and their solution:
Education is considered as the cheapest defence of a nation. But the down trodden condition of education in Pakistan bears an ample testimony of the fact that it is unable to defend its own sector. Though 62 years have been passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the educational sector is waiting for an arrival of a saviour.The government of Pervaiz Musharraf invested heavily in education sector and that era saw a visible positive educational change in Pakistani society. Now a days, the economic situation in Pakistan is under stress and education is the worse effected sector in Pakistan. The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan says, “The state of Pakistan shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period.” In Human Development Report, Pakistan is placed at 136th position for having just 49.9% educated populace. The primary completion rate in Pakistan, given by Date Center of UNESCO, is 33.8% in females and 47.18% in males, which shows that people in the 6th largest country of the world are unable to get the basic education. Political and Social issues of education in Pakistan:
Following are the problems of education in Pakistan:
* Unequal lines:
The educational system of Pakistan is based on unequal lines. Medium of education is different in both, public and private sectors. This creates a sort of disparity among people, dividing them into two segments. One division is on the basis of English medium language while the other is Urdu medium language. * Regional disparity:
Regional disparity is also a major cause. The schools in Balochistan (The Largest Provice Of Pakistan By Area) are not that much groomed as that of Punjab (The Largest Provice Of Pakistan By Population). In FATA, the literacy rate is deplorable constituting 29.5% in males and 3% in females. * Lack of technical education:
The lack of technical education is a biggest flaw in the educational policy that has never been focused before. Therefore, less technical people means less progress. This flaw is tried to be covered by the government of President Pervaiz Musharraf. Specially, Pervaiz Elahi worked very hard to improve the education standard in Punjab. * Allocaton of funds:
The allocation of funds for education are very low. It is only 1.5 to 2.0 percent of the total GDP. It should be around 7% of the total GDP. During his reign, a record 3 to 4 percent of the budget was earmarked. Later on in the PPP government the budget was reduced drastically in this sector. We should follow the example of Malaysian government which earmarks about 35 percent of its GDP to education sector. * Lack of professionally trained teachers:
The teachers in government schools are not well trained. People who donot get job in any other sector, they try their luck in educational system. They are not professionally trained teachers so they are unable to train a nation. However, professionally more trained people can educate the people to build a good nation. 2.Social Issues
* Ethnic issues:
It is found that most of the students belonging to a particular ethnic group are slow learners. We need to encourage the students to improve their self esteem and confidence. * Cultural issues:
Every class has a cultural diversity with students belonging to different cultures. This may be due to immigration of the students. Some students may be well versed in English while others may not. So, it is the duty of the teacher to eradicate this communication barrier that has emerged due to the cultural diversity. * Emotional issues:
Some students may have single parents. The root cause of this is the increase in the divorce rate among the married couples. Living with a single parent can affect the emotional health of the child. The in turn can affect its academic performance in school. Another scenario is where both the parents of the child are working and find less time to cater to the emotional needs of the child. The dearth of love and attention shatters the confidence of the child to a greater extent. * Gender issues:
One may find it extremely astonishing to know that various sections of the society still believe in gender discrimination. Girls are deprived of higher educational opportunities and forced to marry. Gender discrimination in education is still a matter of concern in certain sections of the society. * Ethical issues:
Certain ethical issues are still making rounds in the educational system like uniform dress code and allowing the students to have a cell phone in the school campus. * Economic issues:
Financial constrain comes as the biggest hurdle in the education. Students who cannot afford the education in the private schools have to settle down with the public schools which lack technological advancement. This turns out to be disadvantageous to the students who have a poor family background. Solutions for Educational System
Estimating the value of education, the Government should take solid steps on this issue. Implementation instead of projecting policies, should be focused on. Allocation of funds should be made easy from provinces to districts and then to educational institutes. Workshops must be arranged for teachers. Foreign states are using LSS system. This should be inducted in Pakistani schools to improve the hidden qualities of children. Technical education must be given to all the classes. The education board of Punjab have projected a plan to give tech- education to the children of industrial workers. Promotion of the primary education is the need of time. Teachers, professors and educationists should be consulted while devising any plan, syllabus or policy. The state seems to give up her responsibility and totally relying on private sector. The need of time is to bring education in its original form to masses. Burdening a students with so much books will not work as he will not understand what the world is going to do next moment. Education is the only cure of the destability in the state and can bring revolution through evolution, by eradicating the social evils. This is how to remove illiteracy in Pakistan.