Region Iv-B Mimaropa Essay Sample
- Word count: 6219
- Category: Philippines
A limited time offer!
Get a custom sample essay written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteedOrder Now
Region Iv-B Mimaropa Essay Sample
MIMAROPA is one of the busiest regions in terms of tourism, cornering more than its fair share of the total number of tourists that visit the country. The region is home to Palawan’s serene tropical beauty as well as Puerto Galera’s beautiful sunsets and vibrant party scene. Tourists who are looking for a rich dose of history and religion flock to Marinduque, the country’s Lenten capital, where the famous Moriones festival is held every year. Divers from all over the world seek the marine wonders of Occidental Mindoro’s Apo Reef. Mountain climbers will delight in exploring the challenging terrains of Romblon’s Mt. Guiting- Guiting, as well as the province’s unexplored and unspoiled beaches. The region’s economy relies mostly on agriculture, fishing and ecotourism, making it one of the strongest in the country. MIMAROPA is one of the Philippine’s top producers of rice, banana, coconut, mango, cashew, papaya and cassava, which are included among the country’s top export products. The region is the second top fish producer in the country, and its output makes up almost 14% of the Philippine’s total produce annually from 2002-2004. MIMAROPA also ranks as the second top producer of seaweeds, representing 21% of the country’s total output. Region IV-B consists of five provinces:
* Occidental MIndoro- The Marine Wonderland
* Oriental MIndoro – Beautiful Bountiful
* MArinduque – Beyond Moriones
* ROmblon – Islands of Gem and Charm
* PAlawan – The Philippines’ Last Frontier
Occidental Mindoro is a province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. “Home of the Indigenous Mangyans”. Its capital is Mamburao and occupies the western half of the island of Mindoro, on the west by Apo East Pass, and on the south by the Mindoro Strait; Oriental Mindoro is at the eastern half. The South China Sea is to the west of the province and Palawan is located to the southwest, across Mindoro Strait. Batangas is to the north, separated by the Verde Island Passage. The present Occidental Mindoro is an agricultural area devoted to the production of food. It ‘s economic base is rice production (Oryza sativa culture), a Philippine staple crop. It is the leading activity and source of seasonal employment in the province, participated in by almost 80 per cent of the population, including children. Wet land or lowland rice is a rainy season crop, being heavily dependent on water, and therefore produced from July (planting season) to October (harvest season). Tobacco, onions, garlic and vegetables are rather grown during the dry season (November to May)since they are not water-intensive crops, and require longer photoperiodicity.
Rice, corn, onions, garlic, salt, fishes(both wild water and cultured) are some of the relatively significant surpluses produced in the province in exportable quantities. Mangoes, cashew nuts, cooking bananas (saba) and some other fruits grown in upland orchards are among the other exports of Occidental Mindoro that have traditionally contributed to its income. Peanuts are also comfortably grown in some parts of the province, as well as cassava, sweet potatoes, ginger and other minor cultivars. Forest resources include timber and minerals, among them gold, copper, silver, chrome, and non-metallic minerals such as lime for making cement, and greenstones for ornaments. Timber groups include many species of hardwoods, such as mahogany, and other types of trees in high demand for durability. There are no large industries in the province. The government is the biggest employer, absorbing most of the off-farm labor force. The local electric cooperative, Occidental Mindoro Electric Cooperative(OMECO), is the biggest employer in the private sector, with nearly 150 regular employees. The rest of the population are engaged in private trades. Oriental Mindoro
Oriental Mindoro occupies the eastern part of the island of Mindoro. It is bounded on the north by the Verde Island Passage, on the east by Tablas Strait, on the west by Occidental Mindoro, and on the south by Semirara Island. The province´s varied topography is dominated by rugged mountain ranges on the west and fertile valleys towards the eastern coast.The Halcon mountain range runs from north to south and serves as the province´s natural boundary with Occidental Mindoro. Mt. Halcon is the fourth highest peak in the Philippines.The province does not have pronounced dry or rainy periods but is open to southwest monsoons and typhoons. Puerto Galera is a major tourist destination. Its numerous white beaches are ideal for water skiing, windsurfing, scuba diving, snorkeling, boating and swimming. Aside from its beaches, Puerto Galera has other attractions. A mini-museum in the compound of the Catholic Church displays valuable Chinese artifacts and porcelain dishes from the island´s early trading days. The marble Cross at Muelle is a landmark in memory of the crew of a Spanish warship which sank in 1879. Tamaraw Falls, the largest waterfall in the province, is 131 meters above sea level with a natural swimming pool at its base. The Marble Quarry in Mt. Talipandan is where 17 different kinds of marble are extracted. Marinduque
Marinduque is a heart-shaped island between Tayabas Bay in the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is separated from the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon by the Mompog Pass. Some of the smaller islands to the northeast are Polo Island, Maniwaya Island, and Mompong Island. The highest peak in Marinduque is Mt. Malindig (formerly, Mt. Marlanga), a potentially active volcano with an elevation of 1157 meters. The island has two major seasons—the dry season (November through February) and the rainy season (June through October), with a transitional period in between. Marinduqueños are said to be very hospitable in nature and are very welcoming. One such custom reflecting this is putong or tubong, which is a custom of welcoming and honoring friends and visitors. The honoree (or honorees) are seated and crowned with flowers while local women dance and sing for them. Other well-wishers throw coins and flower petals for long life. Marinduqueños are of Tagalog origin and speak Tagalog. Romblon
Romblon is best known as the marble capital of the Philippines. It has been said that the quality of its marble. Situated at the heart of the Philippine archipelago, Romblon links the supply areas of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Endowed with rich natural wonders, Romblon is a cluster of twenty islands hemmed in by the Sibuyan Sea on the north, east and south, and the Tablas Strait on the west.
The Tugdan Airport located at Tablas Island is only 45 minutes away by light aircraft from Metro Manila’s financial districts. Also, direct ship routes from Manila as well as the southern Luzon ports of Batangas and Lucena intensify linkages with the industrial CALABARZON region, making this province of 17 municipalities and 219 barangays an ideal location for supply distribution and light manufacturing ventures. The capital town of Romblon and the port town of Odiongan are the province’s trade and commercial centers. Palawan
Palawan is a narrow archipelago of 1,700 islands on the western border of the Philippines. It’s geographical location makes it seem remote from the rest of the country, and in fact, some of its southern islands are closer to Malaysia than to other provinces. The waters of the South China Sea lap the western shores of Palawan, while the Sulu Sea hugs its eastern coast. With a land area of more than 1.7 million hectares, Palawan is the country’s largest province. Its irregular coastline stretches almost 2000 kilometers long, indented by numerous coves and bays. Highlands and rolling terrain covered with lush forests create a cool and scenic landscape. Except for the northern towns, which are occasionally visited by storms, Palawan is generally typhoon- free. Warm weather prevails from March to May , while the coolest months are from December to February. Heavy rainfall is usually experienced in July and August, often accompanied by the southwest monsoon. Palawan is one of the few relatively peaceful provinces in the country. The crime rate is relatively low and most Palaweños are contented to lead simple lifestyles. Food is abundant to all who are willing to work for a living. The province is a melting pot of migrants from various parts of the Philippines and other countries.
by Dirk Schönberger, 12 January 2001
Source: Symbols of the state
Puerto Princesa, population 160,000, was founded in 1872, and chartered as a city about a hundred years later. The flag of Puerto Princesa is probably a salute to the Palawan Peacock Pheasant, which is considered endangered. John Ayer, 7 March 2001
There are many scenic spots in the MIMAROPA. Some of them are the Bathala Cave, Balanacan Bay and Tres Reyes Islands in the province of Marinduque; the White Island in Mindoro; Bonbon Beach in Romblon; and, the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park and El Nido Marine Reserve Park in Palawan. Battle of Pulang Lupa Marker
Battle of Pulang Lupa Marker was built in memory of the Marinduque revolutionary forces who fought the Americans, a marker stands at the site of the bloodiest battle ever fought in the island, and was the first known major battle won by the Filipinos over the Americans.
Tagalog is widely spoken in the region. In Marinduque, Tagalog is spoken with a unique blend of Bicolano and Visayan languages. Aside from Tagalog, there are also other major languages being used by the people in different provinces and localities. In the interior of Mindoro, various languages are spoken by Mangyans, and they include Iraya, Alangan, Tawbuid, Hanunoo, Tadyawan, Buhid, and Ratagnon. The latter is a Visayan language with less than three speakers. Romblon, being near the Visayas, has three main languagues that belong to Visayan language family namely, Romblomanon, Asi, and Onhan. Palawan, on the other hand, has its own set of native languages such as Cuyonon, Calamian Tagbanwa and Palawano that are still spoken by significant numbers of people.
Best Philippine Destinations: Region IVb MIMAROPA
– JANUARY 3, 2011POSTED IN: DESTINATIONS, LUZON, REGIONS MIMAROPA a name stands for the provinces that comprise the region namely; Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon, and Palawan. Like the other half of the region which is the CALABARZON those names are portmanteau merging the names of their corresponding provinces. Aside from the 5 provinces the region also has a total number of 2 Cities, 71 Municipalities, and 1,458 Barangays.
The region has the total number populations of 2,559,791 (as of 2007), and a total area of 29,621 km2. Calapan City is the regional center and is located at Oriental Mindoro. Tagalog is generally spoken in the region with a unique mix of Bicolano and Visayan dialect. Some other language used in the region in the people with different provinces and localities are; Iraya, Alangan, Tawbuid, Buhid, and Ratagnon, Romblomanon, Asi and Onhan. Cuyonon, Tagbanwa and Palawano. The region also has other ethnic group the Mangyans.
MIMAROPA is the fastest growing region in the country when their economies rush forward from -6.1% in 2006 it rises to 19.1% in 2007, aided by the strong expansion of industrial sector. The region’s main source of livelihood is came from agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector.
With a bountiful production of palay, corn, and other crops, livestock and fishery it leads to speed up the economy growth of the region.But it slows down since the decrease of largely attributed from the mining and quarrying subsector due to the reduced production of natural gas in Palawan. And other subsector, however, had a slow down development due to the delay of the ownership of dwelling.
The region has a lot to offer in terms of tourism. With lots of beautiful spots like, Bathla Cave, Balanacan Bay and Tres Reyes Islands in the provinces of Marinduque. The lovely beaches, like White Island beach of Mindoro and Bonbon Beach of Romblon, the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park and EI Nido Marine Reserve Park in Palawan. Going to some provinces in the region is not a problem since you can have flights from Manila to get you in the provinces and also you can catch a ferry from Batangas, Manila, Luzon or Mindoro it depend from where you are. Climate:
December to May is dry season, June to November are rainy days. Other part of the region provinces are dry season from November to May and rainy season during June to October. Religions:
* Iglesia ni Cristo
* Born Again Christian
* Other Christian group religions
* Oriental Mindoro – Calapan City
* Palawan – Puerto Princesa City
People behind of Region IV-B:
* Marin and Garduke – The two lovers in the legends who was said, how the island of Marinduque was formed. A tragic love affair between the two lovers who drowned themselves to fulfilled their love. Since the girl’s father a Datu disapproved their relation and ordered to behead Garduke, but the two sailed out and drowned themselves, that’s when the island rose and named Marindugue. * Datu Batumbacal – The father of the girl in the legend * Chau-Ju-Jua – Chinese historian who mention Mindoro and refer the island as “Mai” in 1226 A.D Events/Celebration:
* M0riones Festival – Holy week celebration, no specific date * Banana Festival of Baco – January 2, Baco, Oriental Mindoro. * Basudani Festival of Bansud – January 19, Bansud, Oriental MIdoro. * Sanduguan – November 11-15, Calapan, Oriental Mindoro. * Harvest Festival – March 21, Calapan, Oriental Mindoro * Mahalta Festival – November 10, Oriental Mindoro
* Lechon Festival – June 24, Pola, Oriental Mindoro
ANG ALAMAT NG MARINDUQUE
Noong unang panahon may pamayanan sa Timog Katagalugan na pinamumunuan ng isang haring mayaman at makapangyarihan, iginagalang ngunit kinatatakutan. Siya’y si Datu Batumbakal, tinaguriang gayon dahil sa siya’y may pusong bakal.
Namuno siya sa Balayan, isang pamayanang sagana sa mga yaman ng kalikasan. Sa panahon ng anihan, naging ugali ng mga katutubo na magpasalamat sa Poong Maykapal sa kanilang masaganang ani. Nagtitipon sila sa tahanan ng Datu at sama-sama silang nag-aalay ng kanilang mga ani tanda ng pasasalamat at sa kapayapaan ng kanilang pamumuhay.
Kasama ng Datu ang kanilang anak na si Marin, isang dilag na pinipintuho dahil sa angking kagandahan. Maraming mga manliligaw ang dalaga na nagmumula sa iba’t-ibang kaharian, ngunit tatlo lamang ang masugid: Datu Bagal ng Mindoro, Datu Saguil ng Laguna at Datu Kawili ng Camarines. Sa kanilang pagluhog, hindi naaantig ang puso ng Prinsesa Marin.
Isang araw, naakit ang dalaga ng mga awit ng Garduke, isang makata na humabi ng mga awitin at tulain sa kagandahan at kariktan ng kalikasan. Siya’y dukhang mangingisda mula sa Taal, nagbibigay aliw sa kaharian ni Datu Batumbakal. Naakit si Marin sa kakisigan ng makata na nagtapat ng pag-ibig sa dalaga. Di nagtagal at sila’y naging magsing-irog.
Nang matuklasan ito ng Datu, nagalit siya. Sumalungat siya sa pag-iibigan ng dalawa. Nais niyang ang mapangasawa ng anak ay isang maharlika. Iniutos niyang patayin si Garduke kung igigiit niya ang pag-ibig sa Prinsesa Marin.
Nalungkot ang Prinsesa, ngunit isang araw habang namamasyal sa dalampasigan ng Bombon, nasalubong niya si Garduke. Ipinahayag ng dalaga ang walang kamatayan niyang pag-ibig sa binata, na di alintana ang pagsalaysay ng binata na siya’y walang kayamanan at kapangyarihang maipagmamalaki.
”Hindi ko kailangan ang kayamanan at kapangyarihan,” wika ni Prinsesa Marin. ”Kailangan kita; may wagas na layunin. Mahal ko ang isang taong mapagkumbaba, makatao at tagahanga ng kalikasan”, dugtong pa ng dalaga.
Nalaman ng Datu ang lihim ng pagtatagpo ng dalawa kaya iniutos niya na pugutan ng ulo si Garduke. Dahil diyan, ipinasya nina Prinsesa Marin at Garduke na tumakas. Sumakay sila sa bangka patungo sa Tayabas Bay, hinabol sila ng mga sundalo ni Datu Batumbakal kasama ang tatlong masugid na manliligaw. Nang inaakala ng dalawa na maaabutan sila ng mga sundalo, iniutos ng dalawa sa kasamang utusan na magkasamang gapusin silang dalawa at ihulog sa gitna ng karagatan. At ganon nga ang nangyari.
Sa pagdaraan ng panahon, may umusbong na hugis pusong pulo sa pook ng pinaglagakan ng katawan nina Prinsesa Marin at Garduke. Ang pulo ay pinangalanang Marinduke, ang pinakamatahimik at mapayapang pulo sa Timog Katagalugan.
LEGEND OF MARINDUQUE
In ancient times, there was a Tagalog-Speaking settlement in Southern Luzon ruled by a king who was rich and powerful, and revered, as he was feared. He was Datu Batumbacal, so named for he had a heart of stone and steel. He ruled his Kingdom from its capital, Balayan, where he lived with his daughter Marin, a maiden worshipped for her beauty. Suitors came from far away Kingdoms to court her, but only three of noble’s birth persisted: Datu Bagal of Mindoro, Datu Saguil of Laguna and Datu Kawili of Camarines. Princess Marin was unmoved by their entreaties. One day, the legend goes, the Datus daughter was enchanted by the songs of Garduke,a poet, who sang praises to beauty and to nature. He was poor fisherman from the settlement of Taal Batumbacal. It was inevitable that Marin should fall for the manly and handsome poet who in time declared his love for her. She accepted his love and before long they were seeing each other secretly. When Datu Batumbacal discovered their trysts, he was furious. He would not hear of his lovely daughter marrying someone who was not a noble by birth. He therefore gave orders to his soldiers to kill Garduke should he insist on seeing Mutya Marin.
She was disconsolate. But one day while strolling along the shores of Bombon, she chanced up Garduke. Despite his protestations that he had no riches and power and was beneath her station in life, Mutya Marin professed her undying love. “I don’t want wealth or power I need you. You are pure of heart, of noble spirit. I love a man who is humble, human and son of Nature”. The knowledge of their secret meeting angered Datu Batumbal who ordered the heading of Garduke. This decision prompted Mutya Marin and Duke to escape in a boat. They sailed out into the sea and headed for Tayabas Bay. Her father’s soldiers and her three suitors pursued them. When their escape seemed futile, Marin and Duke asked their servants to tie them together and cast them into the depths of the sea. And so the legend goes that from the sea emerged a heart-shaped island, named Marinduque, a tribute to the ill-fated lovers.
Occidental Mindoro (Filipino: Kanlurang Mindoro, “Western Mindoro”;Spanish: Mindoro Occidental) is a province of the Philippines located in theMIMAROPA region in Luzon. “Home of the Indigenous Mangyans”. Its capital isMamburao and occupies the western half of the island of Mindoro, on the west by Apo East Pass, and on the south by the Mindoro Strait; Oriental Mindoro is at the eastern half. The South China Sea is to the west of the province and Palawanis located to the southwest, across Mindoro Strait. Batangas is to the north, separated by the Verde Island Passage.
General land surface features that characterize Occidental Mindoro are mountains, rivers, hills, valleys, wide plains and some small fresh water lakes. The taller mountains can be found in the interior that it shares with Oriental Mindoro. Mountain ranges converge on the two central peaks, namely Mt. Halcon in the North, and Mt. Baco in the South. There is also a mountain known as bundok ng susong dalaga, the “Maiden’s breast mountain”, that looks like a reclined woman. The northern part of the province has relatively fewer plains, while the southern parts have wider flatlands. Most of the plains are cultivated fields, with few remaining untouched forests. There are several major drainage or river systems flowing on a generally westerly course: Mamburao river, Pagbahan, Mompong, Biga, Lumintao, Busuanga and Caguray. The province is also home to one of the more popular coral reefs in the Philippines, Apo Reef. Significant hilly areas can be found rolling off in Sta Cruz in the north, and in San Jose and Magsaysay in the south. These are grassed-over rather than forested. Swamp areas are restricted to the south, specially, along the river mouths. Climate
Occidental Mindoro has two distinct weather types: rainy season and dry season. Rains begin to fall in the province in late May, intensifying through June, July, August, September and October, then gradually subsides in November. The months of August and September are the wettest period, with storms directly passing through the area. On the other hand, the dry season starts in November, with rainfall subsiding in intensity, and altogether ceasing in January, February, March and April. March and April are the driest period, with cloudless skies and parched earth characterizing the general area. Temperature range is from 78 °F (26 °C) in the windy uplands to 90 F (32 °C) in the unstirring lowlands.
The political history of Occidental Mindoro necessarily begins with the commercial history of Mindoro Island. Mindoro Island was originally known to the ancients as Ma-i. It was formally called Mait, and known to the Chinese traders before the coming of the Spanish. Its existence was mentioned in the old Chinese chronicles in 775 A.D. and more elaborately in 1225. It was a major anchorage in the Southeast Asia trade route during the pre-Philippines period. Chinese, Arab and Indian merchants traded with the natives. In 1570, the Spanish began to explore the island and named it Mina de Oro (mine of gold) after finding some of the precious metal, though no major gold discoveries were ever made. The natives of Mindoro were called Manguianes by the Spaniards. But the natives refer to themselves by their ethnic or clan identification. There were seven such ethnic or clan distinctions, which are differentiated by language and areas where each can be found. The Mangyans, as they are now anthropologically known, do not have a warrior society.
They are a peaceful, shy but friendly people. They are rarely known to be hostile, and have had no significant record of violent conflict with other people in the entire history of the province. They grow root crops in forest clearings (slah and burn farms), and hunted wild animals in the forest for their meat needs. There are no authentic documents in existence explaining the original stock of the Mangyan people, but later theoreticians postulate that they migrated from Indonesia before 775 A.D They hopped from island to island, until finally settling down permanently in Mindoro. It appeared that clan settlements existed in the North as well as in the southern ends of the island. By 779, the southwest coast of the island was already a known trading center, and its fine natural harbor frequented by Arab, Indian and Chinese maritime traders who plied the route. But there was no attempt of subjugation, just trading. The first semblance of a political system in Mindoro’s experience was provided by China in the 13th century. Chinese imperial forces under Admiral Cheng Ho with a powerful armada of 60 war junks visited Mindoro and other parts of the archipelago in the 13th century, with the purpose of gaining more trading favors for Chinese merchants.
For a time, Admiral Ho tried to exert some effort of rule as a prelude to Sino annexation. Internal trouble in the Chinese home front, however, recalled the armada, and the attempts of the empire to annex the archipelago did not materialize. Some time after the Ho overture, Islamic influence reached the island, probably, through Suluanons who traded with the natives. Moslem peoples, possibly – Orang Dampuans (economic refugees from Sulu)crossed Mindoro Strait from Paragua (now Palawan) and settled along the coastal areas, developing progressive maritime communities. In 1572, Captain Juan de Salcedo of the Spanish expeditionary army set sail from Cebu and explored the West coast of the island, encountering the Mangyans, who appeared used to seeing foreigners and were not at all a bit surprised at their arrival. On the contrary, it was he and Martin de Goiti who were surprised to see cross designs on the clothing and basketwork of the natives, and thought some early Christian missionary had been there before them. But later scholars believed the design was Indic in origin and had no religious meaning. They also encountered moro settlers in Lubang Island that were vassals of and paid tribute to the kingdom of Maynila in the North, under Raha Sulaiman.
This was the first real political system in the island. The moros, who apparently have heard of the invaders from their kinsmen in the south, engaged the small Spanish force who landed on their shore, but the Spaniards’ arquebuses, and cannon fire from the ships hoved-to broadside to the Island, took the field. The moros fled to the hills, and Salcedo burned their village. After the defeat of Sulaiman in the same year, Mindoro and other vassal states of Maynila became subject of Castillan rule. The island was officially referred to from then on as Mina
de Oro (mine of gold), compressed later on into Mindoro. The free land name, Ma-i, fell into disuse, replaced by the colonial place name, Mindoro. But the Spanish-Moro war would rage on in Mindoro until toward the end of the Spanish regime in the 19th century. In 1602, Moro forces plundered the most important Spanish towns along the coasts of Mindoro and Southern Luzon, and subsequently reestablished their hold in Mindoro by constructing a fort at Mamburao. From 1720 onwards Moro raids became devastating not only to the island’s Hispanized communities but to other parts of the archipelago as well.
In 1757, the Moros, more particularly, the Iranuns (a relative of the Maranaws of the Lake Lanao regions) organized a war fleet of 74 fast native ships called prahus they destroyed completely several settlements in the island, carrying off their inhabitants to be sold as slaves in the slave market in Jolo. The fact that a Moro fort at Mamburao threatened Manila, the very capital of the colonial government, embarrassed the conquerors in the eyes of their native subjects, which was politically intolerable to the Spanish administrators. So in 1766, the Spaniards gathered a large force of 1,200 fully armed marines, augmented by a large army of native mercenaries, and burned the Iranun fort. But the moros simply faded into the hills to escape, and came back when the counter-raid was over and the raiders returned to Manila. The moros not only plundered goods, but also—more importantly—took prisoners of war which they sold as slaves. Many Islamic leaders in Mindanao, in spite of the peace settlement with the Spaniards contained in treaties and formal agreements, supported piratical raids with arms, ammunition and food, not only because it was a patriotic act (defending moroland), but this patriotism was also giving them handsome profits. They received part of the “prisoners of war” when a successful raider returns, which earned them huge amounts. Most of the raids were successful because of the fast watercraft in the employ of the raiders.
It was not until the commission of thevapor, fast steamships, in the mid-18th century that the Spanish navy successfully patrolled the archipelagic waters, and fared well against the wind-powered native seacraft of the pirates. Many pirate fleets were sunk at sea, or confined to their hiding places. The invention of machines during the industrial revolution, which gradually replaced manual labor, and the consecutive abolitions of slave ownership in many liberalized countries, caused a great decline in the demand for slave labor. Many of the pirate markets closed, and prices fell severely for captives. With the loss to the Spanish navy increasing, and the eventual fall in profits from slave selling, raiding became less appealing to the Iranuns and their Islamic supporters. Uneconomical patriotism simply did not make quite an appeal. Thus, it came to pass that the moro pirates faded away from Mindoro’s history. The pirates fort in Mamburao was abandoned, and the moros retreated to Mindanao to consolidate their forces and continue the Moslem resistance at the homefront. Mindoro Island then became a Spanish possession in a truer sense for the first time. But not for long.
In 1896, the Philippine revolution begun, which spread like wildfire throughout the islands.In 1897, the Spaniards posted a rifle company of 140 troops and 51 marines to Calapan to secure the island from the forces of General Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary army, then beginning to overrun Spanish positions in the archipelago. Only Mindoro was relatively safe. In 1898, the revolutionaries attacked and overwhelmed the settlement that is now Bongabong. The revolution also ignited in the western part (Occidental Mindoro), which seized control of the settlements there from the Spaniards. Finally, they marched against the capital of Calapan with some 1,000 ill-armed foot soldiers. But the attack came to nothing. The Spanish defenses held. It was only the arrival of 1,000 regular army, with artillery, under General Malvar in Batangas that compelled the surrender of the Spaniards under Governor Morales. Hence on July 1, 1898, the Spanish rule in Mindoro Island, lasting for 328 years, came to an end.
A new battalion “Mindoro”, with two rifle companies, was formed under the command of Captain Ruperto Hernandez and Estanislao Cayton, both from Batangas. The revolutionary political reins were held by the elite, who also held the same reins under the Spaniards (and later under the Americans). The revolution, therefore, was a revolution for liberation against colonial rule but not a war for social change, which was to be defeated late in the US-Filipino war that followed. The political waltz continued, from Spanish colonialism to U.S. neo-colonialism.Im 1910, the successor United States politico-military administration granted over 50 km² of land to the Welch and Fargo Sugar Company in what is now San Jose, which built the first modern and biggest sugar mill in the Far East at siete central (now barangay Central). In the same year, the boldly developing community of sugar cane planters, mill workers, company professionals and businessmen enabled the creation of San Jose as an official Philippine town.
The population of Occidental Mindoro is 452,971 in the 2010 census, making it the country’s 21st least populated province. The population density is 77 persons per km². Major languages spoken are Tagalog and Mangyan. Ilokano, Visaya, Kapampangan, andBikolano, are spoken by people who migrated from the provinces where they are spoken. Occidental Mindoro is a cultural melting pot, populated mostly by recent immigrants. Population trend:
* Population in 2010: 452,971
* Population in 2007: 421,952
* Population in 2000: 380,250
* Population in 1995: 339,605
* Population in 1990: 282,593
The indigenous people in the province are the Mangyans (Manguianes in Spanish, Mañguianes in Old Tagalog), consisting of 7 distinct tribes. They occupy the interior, specially the highlands. Mangyans have inhabited the island since pre-history. They are believed to have originally travelled from Indonesia and settled down for good in the island. There have been many evidences, historical and geophysical, that Mangyans were formerly living near the coastlines, but they were compelled to move into the interior jungles of the island when the Spanish colonizers came, to avoid cultural altercation which brought diseases to them, and to preserve their way of life. Today, Mangyans number to only around 80,000 (freely moving in and out in both provinces of Oriental and Occidental Mindoro). But there is no accurate accounting of them since many still live elusively in the upper regions of the island, avoiding contact with lowlanders.
The present Occidental Mindoro is an agricultural area devoted to the production of food. It ‘s economic base is rice production (Oryza sativa culture), a Philippine staple crop. It is the leading activity and source of seasonal employment in the province, participated in by almost 80 per cent of the population, including children. Wet land or lowland rice is a rainy season crop, being heavily dependent on water, and therefore produced from July (planting season) to October (harvest season). Tobacco, onions, garlic and vegetables are rather grown during the dry season (November to May)since they are not water-intensive crops, and require longer photoperiodicity. Rice, corn, onions, garlic, salt, fishes(both wild water and cultured) are some of the relatively significant surpluses produced in the province in exportable quantities. Mangoes, cashew nuts, cooking bananas (saba) and some other fruits grown in upland orchards are among the other exports of Occidental Mindoro that have traditionally contributed to its income.
Peanuts are also comfortably grown in some parts of the province, as well as cassava, sweet potatoes, ginger and other minor cultivars. Forest resources include timber and minerals, among them gold, copper, silver, chrome, and non-metallic minerals such as lime for making cement, and greenstones for ornaments. Timber groups include many species of hardwoods, such as mahogany, and other types of trees in high demand for durability. There are no large industries in the province. The government is the biggest employer, absorbing most of the off-farm labor force. The local electric cooperative, Occidental Mindoro Electric Cooperative (OMECO), is the biggest employer in the private sector, with nearly 150 regular employees. The rest of the population are engaged in private trades. Problems
There are many multi-faceted problems in Occidental Mindoro’s economy. In rice farming, the biggest confronting the producers are the high cost of production. This is attributed mainly to the spiraling prices of farm inputs. A study concludes that from 1997 to 2003, the cost of production rose by 47 per cent, while the income derived from marketing rice has maintained 1997 levels. There are also confused reports that the average production rate has declined due to the reduced application of necessary farm chemicals. In street language, this means that the farmers simply cut the amount of inputs because they cannot afford the high capital requirements of following all the recommended inputs in the farming calendar. Another structural problem is the inadequacy of irrigation. Most of the river systems in the province no longer have the demanded volume of water to make irrigation feasible. This is attributed to the greatly deforested watersheds.
A robust red sea star (Choriaster granulatus) in Pandan Islands
A colony of orange tunicates (Clavelina dimunata) in Pandan Islands
A Bright Red Shrimp in Pandan Islands.
A cushion star in Apo Reef
Yellowish white soft coral in Apo Reef
A yellow crinoid in Apo Reef
Oriental Mindoro (Filipino: Silangang Mindoro, “Eastern Mindoro”; Spanish: Mindoro Oriental) is a province of the Philippines located in the island of Mindoro under MIMAROPA region in Luzon, about 140 km southwest of Manila. The province is bordered by the Verde Island Passage and the rest of Batangas to the north, by Marinduque, Maestre de Campo (or known as Sibale but official name is Concepcion) Island, Tablas Strait and the rest of Romblon to the east, by Semirara and the rest of Caluya Islands, Antique to the south, and by Occidental Mindoro to the west. Calapan City, the only city in the island, is the provincial capital. Oriental Mindoro is touted as the country’s emerging eco-tourism destination. In 2005, the Philippines was found to be the center of marine fish biodiversity and the home of the most diverse marine ecosystem in the world, by American biologists Kent Carpenter and Victor Springer. Most of the endemic species in the Philippines are found in the Verde Island Passage between Mindoro island and the main island of Luzon. The passage houses 2,983 individual species of algae, corals, crustaceans, mollusks, fishes, marine reptiles, and marine mammals, based on a study conducted by scientists Carpenter and Springer in 2005. Creation
World War II wrought heavy damages, death and pain to the people of Mindoro. However, social conditions continued to exist without any definitive changes. After the war, reconstruction and rehabilitation of infrastructure and economy took place which ended with the division of the island into two provinces of Oriental Mindoro and Occidental Mindoro on June 13, 1950, by virtue of the Republic Act No. 505. In the decades after the war, the island continued to become one of the preferred areas of new settlers coming from the overpopulated provinces in the Philippines in search of the new land. Apart from the hope to become landowners or to have better tenancy conditions, the guerrilla war (Huk rebellion) in Central Luzon was an important factor for migration. Under the settlement program of the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) which was founded on June 18, 1954, families from Central Luzon were settled in the Bongabong-Pinamalayan area. This project ended in 1956 after the settlement of 606 families (3,636 people) on 8,600 hectares of public land. Since then new settlers have incessantly migrated to Mindoro until today. Armed conflict
There is currently a war going on between the Military and insurgents. On March 6, 2010, eleven soldiers were killed in a gunbattle with insurgents in Oriental Mindoro
Palawan (Tagalog pronunciation: [pɐ’lawan]) or officially Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Palawan, is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region or Region 4. Its capital is Puerto Princesa City, and it is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction. The islands of Palawan stretch from Mindoro in the northeast to Borneo in the southwest. It lies between the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea. The province is named after its largest island, Palawan Island (09°30′N 118°30′E), measuring 450 kilometres (280 mi) long, and 50 kilometres (31 mi) wide.